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MEDIEVAL LANGUAGES RESOURCES

Edited by Róisín Astell and Anna-Nadine Pike, with contributions from Prof Henrike Lähnemann (Medieval and Modern Languages - Oxford), Edward Mills (Exeter), Dr David Rundle (MEMS), Dr Daniella Gonzalez, Dr. Heather Pagan (Editor of Anglo-Norman Dictionary, Aberystwyth University) and Emerson Richards (Indiana University)
 
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MEDIEVAL LATIN

Latin Dictionaries​

Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources – available online through Logeion

(the best freely available dictionary of Latin - and Greek - bringing together several classical dictionaries, and run by the Perseus Project of the University of Chicago)

 

Du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediæ et infimæ latinitatis (Niort : L. Favre, 1883-1887) - available online

 

For Latin terms first coined in the early modern period, see Johannes Ramminger's Neulateinische Wortliste (in German)

 

Other Resources

Early Indo-European Online Language Lessons - Introductory language lessons from the  Linguistics Research Centre at the University of Texas, covering 18 different Indo-European languages including Latin, Greek, Old English, Old Norse, Old Irish and Old French, among others. The lessons present fully annotated primary materials with translation and pronunciation exercises, recordings, glossaries and grammatical guides.

The Philological Museum - Dana Suttons' collection of high-quality scholarly editions and translations of Latin texts produced in the early modern period.


Whitaker’s Words - Provides translations from Latin to English and English to Latin.

OLD & MIDDLE ENGLISH

 
 

Old English

Bosworth-Toller Dictionary of Old English - This project, initiated in 2001, digitises the work An Anglo-Saxon dictionary, based on the manuscript collections of the late Joseph Bosworth (first edition 1898), together with its Supplement (ed. 1921), edited by J. Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller.

 

Corpus of Narrative Etymologies (The University of Edinburgh) - Developed by the compilers of LAEME (Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English), CoNE and its accompanying Corpus of Changes (CC) record specific developments in language, whether orthographical, phonological, or morphological, through which the earliest forms of Old English developed into those recorded in LAEME.

 

The Dictionary of Old English - The DOE covers the period 600-1150, and is a project from the University of Toronto designed to complement the Middle English Dictionary (1100-1500) and the Oxford English Dictionary.

Early Indo-European Online Language Lessons - Introductory language lessons from the  Linguistics Research Centre at the University of Texas, covering 18 different Indo-European languages including Latin, Greek, Old English, Old Norse, Old Irish and Old French, among others. The lessons present fully annotated primary materials with translation and pronunciation exercises, recordings, glossaries and grammatical guides.

 

The Épinal-Erfurt Glossary Project - The Épinal-Erfurt Glossary provides a Latin-Old English glossary as preserved in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 144. The Project is ongoing, and letters A-D have currently been edited. 

The Glossary is also available in its entirety through the Internet Archive, as Latin-Anglo-Saxon Glossary, from the MS 144, preserved in the Library of Corpus Christ College, Cambridge, edited by J. H Hessels (Cambridge, 1890).

 

Gersum - The Scandinavian Influence on English Vocabulary. Database of words in major late Middle English poems derived from Old Norse. 

 

Napier’s Old English Lexicography - Napier, Arthur S., Contributions to old English lexicography (Hertford: Printed by Stephen Austin & Sons, 1906).

 

The Old-English Dictionary A online version of the PhD Thesis by Mary L. Johnson, A Modern English - Old English Dictionary, first published in 1927. 


A Thesaurus of Old English(Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 2017).

Middle English

Linguistic Atlas of Late Medieval English (LALME), University of Edinburgh - The project maps local dialectal variations in English spellings between 1325 and 1450, with sources examined having unique ‘LALME’ numbers for quick identification. The site includes an index of sources examined, maps, the linguistic profiles of individual geographical areas, and dictionaries by county. A valuable resource when considering regional linguistic variety or specificity, or the geographical origin of a particular text. 

 

See also the Linguistic Atlas of Early Medieval English, 1150-1325 (LAEME), available here

 

See also the Linguistic Atlas of Older Scots, 1380-1500 (LAOS), available here

 

Middle English Compendium - Contains the following online resources: the Middle English Dictionary, a Bibliography of Middle English prose and verse, and a Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse.

Middle English Dictionary - The MED offers a valuable database of English lexicon and usage between 1100 and 1500, and is part of the Middle English Compendium by the University of Michigan. 

 

Middle English Grammar Corpus - A corpus of samples of English texts dated from 1300-1500, from the University of Stavanger. The corpus uses texts localised through LALME, but also incorporates earlier texts, and those showing non-regional varieties of Middle English. A manual for use, catalogues, and the corpus itself, in a readable format, are all downloadable from the main site, above.

 
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MEDIEVAL FRENCH & ANGLO-NORMAN

Medieval French Dictionaries

Dictionnaire du moyen français (1330-1550) - Available online.

Godefroy, Frédéric. Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (Paris, 1881-1902. 10 vols) - the first nine volumes are available in .pdf format on the Gallica website. You can also access the Dictionary through this website, which more user firiendly.

Dictionnaire étymologique de l'ancien Français (DEAF) – Made by the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, the DEAF lays the scientific foundations, both philological and linguistic, of Old French. It covers the period from 842 until the middle of the 14th century. The articles are listed in alphabetical order and contain the words grouped by etymological families. More information can be found here.

La Curne de Sainte-Palaye, Jean-Baptiste de, Dictionnaire historique de l’ancien langue françois ou Glossaire de la langue françoise depuis son origine jusqu’au siècle de Louis XIV (Paris, 1875-82. 10 vols) - Available in .pdf format on the Gallica website.

Tobler, Adolf and Erhard Lommatzch. Altfranzösisches Wörterbuch (Vols. 1-10, Berlin, 1925-76. Vol. 11, col. 1-768, u-vonjement Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1989-95. Vol. 11, col. 769-938, vonjement-zure, Stuttgart: Steiner, 2002) - Available through the University of Stuttgart.

Wartburg, Walther von et al, Französisches etymologisches Wörterbuch: eine Darstellung des galloromanischen Sprachschatzes (FEW) 25 vols (Bonn: Klopp et al., 1928-) – Available online.

Anglo-Norman

Anglo-Norman Dictionary (editors De Wilde, Geert and Heather Pagan) The AND is an incredible resource if you are studying Anglo-Norman. In addition to their online dictionary, you can access articles on Anglo-Norman and texts on their site. An invaluable tool.

Other Resources

Early Indo-European Online Language Lessons - Introductory language lessons from the  Linguistics Research Centre at the University of Texas, covering 18 different Indo-European languages including Latin, Greek, Old English, Old Norse, Old Irish and Old French, among others. The lessons present fully annotated primary materials with translation and pronunciation exercises, recordings, glossaries and grammatical guides.

 
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MEDIEVAL GERMAN

Medieval German Texts & Manuscripts

Handschriftencensus - An inventory of the handwritten tradition of German-language texts from the Middle Ages. It includes up-to-date links of works and manuscripts that contain medieval German text.

British Library, Harley MS 1802, f 61r.

OLD & MIDDLE IRISH

 

Old & Middle Irish Resources

eDIL - Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language (eDIL) - a digital dictionary of medieval Irish. It is based on the Royal Irish Academy’s Dictionary of the Irish Language based mainly on Old and Middle Irish materials (1913-1976) which covers the period c.700-c.1700 but incorporates corrections and additions to thousands of entries.

Early Indo-European Online Language Lessons - Introductory language lessons from the  Linguistics Research Centre at the University of Texas, covering 18 different Indo-European languages including Latin, Greek, Old English, Old Norse, Old Irish and Old French, among others. The lessons present fully annotated primary materials with translation and pronunciation exercises, recordings, glossaries and grammatical guides.

eSenchas – an online resource for the study of medieval Irish language texts.

Bibliography of Irish Linguistics and Literature – a great list of books available online.  

The Parsed Old and Middle Irish Corpus (POMIC) - is a corpus of Irish texts spanning the years from c. 700 to c. 1100. The current beta-version of the corpus consists of 14 texts which have been POS-tagged and syntactically parsed. The corpus is, however, a work in progress and future additions are envisioned which will include texts written at the end of the Middle Irish period (up to around 1200) as well as very early legal Matériel that may, in some cases, be dated to the 7th century.

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MEDIEVAL WELSH

 

Medieval Welsh Resources

Welsh Prose 1300-1425 - a site which presents a searchable corpus of Medieval Welsh prose. Some 2.8 million words are covered in 54 manuscripts. The manuscripts contain over 100 texts – here categorised into different genres. A searchable database of 2.8 million words used in Welsh manuscripts from 1300-1425.

Reading Middle Welsh - a resource to facilitate learning Middle Welsh from a basic level, using the Mabinogion as the source text. Provides a foundation for pronunciation, vocabulary, and beginning to advanced grammar (including a breakdown of lenitions), building up to reading Pwyll Pendyfig Dyved.

Resource page updated by Roisin Astell - last updated 20/07/20

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